Generally touring bicycles have a heavier frame tubing and a more relaxed geometry.
Attached are rear racks so that you can carry your luggage in bags (bicycle panniers) while riding and some people also use front racks with additional bags.
You should also consider fenders to keep the water on the road from flying up at you as you cycle. It can take a few miles (km) at the start of a trip to get used to cycling with a loaded bicycle so you may want to practice at home before you start your trip.
The best touring bicycle is similar to a road bike, and come with a range of gears, usually 24 to 30 different gears, for riding on different types of of terrain and carrying extra luggage. Because of the heavier tubing, extra gears, and racks, touring bikes generally weight more than road bikes.
Touring bikes usually have 28 inch (700c) wheels like a road bike, but are normally fitted with fatter tires, 28 to 35 millimeter (1.1 to 1.4 inches) and sometimes stronger spokes. The increased tired width makes the bikes more suitable for rougher surfaces and for carrying heavier loads. The relaxed geometry and wider tires increase road shock absorbency and ride comfort
Although many cyclists use a touring bicycle for their journey, some use road bikes adapted for touring. Your touring bicycle is your transportation so choose with care.